What are symptoms of thyroid nodule
- Thyroid nodules are lumps that form within thyroid gland , it is a small gland located at the front of neck.
- Most of the thyroid nodules aren’t serious and don’t cause symptoms. Only a small percentage of thyroid nodules are thyroid cancer.
- Some thyroid nodules is visible in the neck as lump/swelling at front of neck
- Causes pressure symptoms such as difficulty in swallowing or breathing or change in voice.
Causes of Thyroid nodule
Reasons to develop nodules in thyroid gland:
- Iodine deficiency
- Overgrowth of normal thyroid tissue
- Thyroid cyst
- Chronic inflammation of the thyroid (thyroiditis). Hashimoto’s disease
- Multinodular goiter
- Thyroid cancer
Complications of thyroid nodule
- Difficulty in swallowing or breathing. Large nodules or a multinodular goiter can cause difficulty in swallowing or breathing.
- Hyperthyroidism. Hyperthyroidism can result in weight loss, muscle weakness, heat intolerance, and anxiousness or irritability.
- Hypothyroidism, such as a slow heartbeat, dry skin, hair fall, weight gain and facial swelling
Diagnosis of thyroid nodule
Thyroid specialist doctor’s while assessing any lump or nodule in neck aims to assess functions of the thyroid gland and to rule out any possibility of cancer.
- Physical exam. Thyroid nodule usually move up and down during swallowing.
- Blood tests-Thyroid function tests- to assess thyroid functions blood levels of hormones produced by thyroid gland, and TSH released by pituitary gland are tested. It may show normal functions, Hyperthyroidism OR hypothyroidism.
- Ultrasonography. Best to understand structure of thyroid gland and nodules.
- Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy. FNA biopsy helps to differentiate between benign and malignant thyroid nodules..
- Thyroid scan. hot nodules –nodule producing excess thyroid hormone are seen as hot nodules
Treatment of benign thyroid nodules
- Watchful waiting. If a biopsy report shows a benign thyroid nodule, thyroid specialist may advice watchful waiting with regular follow ups and thyroid function tests.
- Thyroid hormone therapy
- Treating nodules that cause hyperthyroidism
- Radioactive iodine.
- Anti-thyroid medications
Thyroid Surgery is the best treatment for thyroid nodules that are:
- Cancerous nodule
- Suspected to be cancerous
- Large nodule causing pressure symptoms Nodule
- A fluid-filled (cystic) nodule returns after being drained once or twice.
What are Types of Thyroid Surgery?
Thyroid Surgery is 3 types:
Total thyroidectomy: Entire thyroid gland may be removed for-
Near Total (Subtotal Thyroidectomy): thyroid surgeon removes one lobe, isthmus and part of other lobe of thyroid.
Thyroid Lobectomy: Hemi Thyroidectomy
Normal lifeis expected after thyroid surgery, once you recover from the effects of surgery. Many patients become hypothyroid after surgery so thyroid hormone is given lifelong.